Ever since their inception, states have dominated the extraction of surplus.

Tomb of , Wikipedia commons.

Two concepts that, in their anti-commerce forms, get in the way of understanding social dynamics are and .

Regarding commodification (turning things into objects of exchange) we have been exchanging goods outside our immediate groups for perhaps as…

Property law rests on conventions that evolved before it and that can operate without it, or even against it.

Waiting for the opening of a speakeasy in 1921 (Wikipedia commons).

Black markets, markets in illegal goods and services, demonstrate that state recognition and protection of property rights are not required for a market to operate. Black markets exist where the state…

The problem with using a distorting social lens.


A common trope of commentary, both inside and outside the US, for some years now (even before the Trump-apocalypse) was that the Republican Party had shifted rightwards. The trouble is, this is mostly not true.

The views of Republican voters has

The evolutionary science behind why humans are so weird.

of this investigation into the evolution of human mating touched on why ageing happens, the discovery advantages of sexual reproduction and how our genus evolved a cooperative subsistence strategy that selected for big brains. …

The evolutionary dynamics of sex and ageing are fascinating.

The , made of mammoth ivory, the earliest undisputed depiction of a human being, 35,000–40,000 years old.

The fundamental choice of life is: approach or avoid? Search is therefore built into the structure of life at its most basic level.*

Natural selection is about successfully replicating so as to stay in the game of life. Selection pressure comes…

We are the cultural species par excellence, and so the species that creates its own niches.

Beaver dam, Hesse, Germany.

The ecologist Paul Colinvaux, author of the classic text , made an observation in his book that is very useful for modelling human…

There have been four major out-of expansions by Homo sapiens.

Source: Jared Diamond, Peter Bellwood, Farmers and Their Languages: The First Expansions, Science, 2003, Vol. 300, Issue 5619, pp. 597–603.

Four great out-of population expansions have widely dispersed Homo sapien populations. The out-of-Africa expansion of foragers; the out-of-the-river-valley expansion of farmers; the out-of-the-steppe expansion of pastoralists; and the out-of-Europe expansion of settler empires and states.

Out of Africa: the expansion…

Intent is not the only thing to judge policies or theories on.


Within the expanding debate and political controversies over CRT (), the Activist’s Fallacy is regularly on display.

The Activist’s Fallacy operates as follows:

We are doing X because we are against Y.

You are…

Folk are intersex because of how their biology is within complex and varied manifestations of two sexes.

Participants at the third International Intersex Forum held in Malta, December 2013.

There is this rather tedious game that is sometimes played where the existence of people is somehow taken to indicate that either sex is not biological or that sex is not binary.

Official health has a persistent pattern of presenting as science-based things that are not.

Source. Taken from , original research and data from .

Despite the efforts of the wilder shores of and its critical derivatives (such as critical race theory) to present science as white, patriarchal, heteronormative and similar morally-disabling things, science retains a great deal…

Lorenzo M Warby

An accidental small businessman who reads a lot and thinks about what he reads, sometimes productively. Currently writing a book on marriage.

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